On the two-state vector reformulation of quantum mechanics

Yakir Aharonov*, Lev Vaidman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A description of quantum systems at the time interval between two successive measurements is presented. Two wave functions, the first preselected by the initial measurement and the second post-selected by the final measurement describe quantum systems at a single time. It is shown how this approach leads to a new concept: a weak value of an observable. Weak values represent novel characteristics of quantum systems between two measurements. They are outcomes of a standard measuring procedure that fulfills certain requirements of "weakness". We call it weak measurement. Physical meaning and underlying mathematical structure of weak measurements are explored.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85-92
Number of pages8
JournalPhysica Scripta
StatePublished - 1998


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