On the road to a multi-coaxial-cable battery: Development of a novel 3D-printed composite solid electrolyte

Heftsi Ragones, Adi Vinegrad, Gilat Ardel, Meital Goor, Yossi Kamir, Moty Marcos Dorfman, Alexander Gladkikh, Diana Golodnitsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


The high areal-energy and power requirements of advanced microelectronic devices favor the choice of a lithium-ion system, since it provides the highest energy density of available battery technologies suitable for a variety of applications. Several attempts have been made to produce primary and secondary thin-film batteries utilizing printing techniques. These technologies are still at an early stage, and most currently-printed batteries exploit printed electrodes sandwiching self-standing commercial polymer membranes, produced by conventional extrusion or papermaking techniques, followed by soaking in non-aqueous liquid electrolytes. In this work, we suggest a novel flexible-battery design and report the initial results of development and characterization of novel 3D printed all-solid-state electrolytes prepared by fused-filament fabrication (FFF). The electrolytes are composed of LiTFSI, polyethylene oxide (PEO), which is a known lithium-ion conductor, and polylactic acid (PLA) for enhanced mechanical properties and high-temperature durability. The 3D printed electrolytes were characterized by means of ESEM imaging, mass spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). TOFSIMS analysis reveals formation of lithium complexes with both polymers. The flexible all-solid LiTFSI-based electrolyte exhibited bulk ionic conductivity of 3 × 10−5 S/cm at 90°C and 156ohmxcm2 resistance of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). We believe that the coordination mechanism of the lithium cation by the oxygen of the PLA chain is similar to that of PEO and local relaxation motions of PLA chain segments could promote Li-ion hopping between oxygens of adjacent CH-O groups. What is meant by this is that PLA not only improves the mechanical properties of PEO, but also serves as a Li-ion-conducting medium. These results pave the way for a fully printed solid battery, which enables free-form-factor flexible geometries.

Original languageEnglish
Article number070503
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2020


FundersFunder number
Ministry of Science and Technology, Israel81485


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