On the estimation of time dependent lift of a European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) during flapping flight

Oksana Stalnov, Hadar Ben-Gida, Adam J. Kirchhefer, Christopher G. Guglielmo, Gregory A. Kopp, Alexander Liberzon, Roi Gurka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


We study the role of unsteady lift in the context of flapping wing bird flight. Both aerodynamicists and biologists have attempted to address this subject, yet it seems that the contribution of unsteady lift still holds many open questions. The current study deals with the estimation of unsteady aerodynamic forces on a freely flying bird through analysis of wingbeat kinematics and near wake flow measurements using time resolved particle image velocimetry. The aerodynamic forces are obtained through two approaches, the unsteady thin airfoil theory and using the momentum equation for viscous flows. The unsteady lift is comprised of circulatory and non-circulatory components. Both approaches are presented over the duration of wingbeat cycles. Using long-time sampling data, several wingbeat cycles have been analyzed in order to cover both the downstroke and upstroke phases. It appears that the unsteady lift varies over the wingbeat cycle emphasizing its contribution to the total lift and its role in power estimations. It is suggested that the circulatory lift component cannot assumed to be negligible and should be considered when estimating lift or power of birds in flapping motion.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0134582
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number9
StatePublished - 22 Sep 2015


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