On the complexity of two-party differential privacy

Iftach Haitner, Noam Mazor, Jad Silbak, Eliad Tsfadia

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

Abstract

In distributed differential privacy, the parties perform analysis over their joint data while preserving the privacy for both datasets. Interestingly, for a few fundamental two-party functions such as inner product and Hamming distance, the accuracy of the distributed solution lags way behind what is achievable in the client-server setting. McGregor, Mironov, Pitassi, Reingold, Talwar, and Vadhan [FOCS '10] proved that this gap is inherent, showing upper bounds on the accuracy of (any) distributed solution for these functions. These limitations can be bypassed when settling for computational differential privacy, where the data is differentially private only in the eyes of a computationally bounded observer, using oblivious transfer. We prove that the use of public-key cryptography is necessary for bypassing the limitation of McGregor et al., showing that a non-trivial solution for the inner product, or the Hamming distance, implies the existence of a key-agreement protocol. Our bound implies a combinatorial proof for the fact that non-Boolean inner product of independent (strong) Santha-Vazirani sources is a good condenser. We obtain our main result by showing that the inner-product of a (single, strong) SV source with a uniformly random seed is a good condenser, even when the seed and source are dependent.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSTOC 2022 - Proceedings of the 54th Annual ACM SIGACT Symposium on Theory of Computing
EditorsStefano Leonardi, Anupam Gupta
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
Pages1392-1405
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)9781450392648
DOIs
StatePublished - 6 Sep 2022
Event54th Annual ACM SIGACT Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2022 - Rome, Italy
Duration: 20 Jun 202224 Jun 2022

Publication series

NameProceedings of the Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
ISSN (Print)0737-8017

Conference

Conference54th Annual ACM SIGACT Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2022
Country/TerritoryItaly
CityRome
Period20/06/2224/06/22

Keywords

  • differential privacy
  • inner product
  • public-key cryptography

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