Parsimonious representations are ubiquitous in modeling and processing information. Motivated by the recent Multi-Layer Convolutional Sparse Coding (ML-CSC) model, we herein generalize the traditional Basis Pursuit problem to a multi-layer setting, introducing similar sparse enforcing penalties at different representation layers in a symbiotic relation between synthesis and analysis sparse priors. We explore different iterative methods to solve this new problem in practice, and we propose a new Multi-Layer Iterative Soft Thresholding Algorithm (ML-ISTA), as well as a fast version (ML-FISTA). We show that these nested first order algorithms converge, in the sense that the function value of near-fixed points can get arbitrarily close to the solution of the original problem. We further show how these algorithms effectively implement particular recurrent convolutional neural networks (CNNs) that generalize feed-forward ones without introducing any parameters. We present and analyze different architectures resulting from unfolding the iterations of the proposed pursuit algorithms, including a new Learned ML-ISTA, providing a principled way to construct deep recurrent CNNs. Unlike other similar constructions, these architectures unfold a global pursuit holistically for the entire network. We demonstrate the emerging constructions in a supervised learning setting, consistently improving the performance of classical CNNs while maintaining the number of parameters constant.
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence|
|State||Published - 1 Aug 2020|
- Multi-layer convolutional sparse coding
- iterative shrinkage algorithms
- network unfolding
- recurrent neural networks