Downward wave coupling dominates the intraseasonal dynamical coupling between the stratosphere and troposphere in the Southern Hemisphere. The coupling occurs during late winter and spring when the stratospheric basic state forms a well-defined meridional waveguide, which is bounded above by a reflecting surface. This basic-state configuration is favorable for planetary wave reflection and guides the reflected waves back down to the troposphere, where they impact wave structures. In this study decadal changes in downward wave coupling are analyzed using the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) dataset. A cross-spectral correlation analysis, applied to geopotential height fields, and a wave geometry diagnostic, applied to zonal-mean zonal wind and temperature data, are used to understand decadal changes in planetary wave propagation. It is found that downward wave 1 coupling from September to December has increased over the last three decades, owing to significant increases at the beginning and end of this 4-month period. The increased downward wave coupling is caused by both an earlier onset of the vertically bounded meridional waveguide configuration and a persistence of this configuration into December. The latter is associated with the observed delay in vortex breakup. The results point to an additional dynamical mechanism whereby the stratosphere has influenced the tropospheric climate in the Southern Hemisphere.
- Decadal variability
- Southern hemisphere
- Stratosphere-troposphere coupling
- Wave properties