Study design:Retrospective observational study.Objectives:The objective of this study was to determine the rehabilitation potential and the extent to which it is realized in a cohort of spinal cord injury patients using the Spinal Cord Injury-Ability Realization Measurement Index (SCI-ARMI) and to study the clinical factors that influence this realization.Setting:Two spinal units in Italy.Methods:Consecutive patients were assessed at the end of an in-patient rehabilitation program using the Spinal Cord Independence Measure and the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury. On the basis of these data and of the age and gender of the patients, we calculated the SCI-ARMI score. Regression analyses were performed to study the relationship between clinical factors and the extent to which rehabilitation potential is realized.Results:We examined the data for 306 patients. Most patients were discharged without having reached their rehabilitation potential, with an SCI-ARMI score <80%. SCI-ARMI scores at discharge were positively influenced by etiology and the lesion level and correlated negatively with lesion severity and the presence of complications during rehabilitation.Conclusion:The SCI-ARMI is an effective tool that can be used to measure the achievement of rehabilitation potential in SCI patients and to identify groups of patients who are at risk of not meeting their rehabilitative potential.