Nutritional and metabolic disturbances are observed in patients critically ill with Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) patients. The aim of this review is to describe these disturbances during the progression of the disease, from the pre-intubation phase through the ventilated condition to the post extubation phase. The analysis of new data describing the prevalence of malnutrition, the modifications in energy expenditure and body composition are guiding medical nutritional therapy to prevent patients from experiencing severe energy deficit and muscle loss. Rehabilitation may be extremely prolonged and therefore, nutrition is mandatory to decrease this recondition period. This review also comments on the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN) nutritional statements.
- Indirect calorimetry
- Intensive care