Leaflet thrombosis has been suggested as the reason for the reduced leaflet motion in cases of hypoattenuated leaflet thickening of bioprosthetic aortic valves. This work aimed to estimate the risk of leaflet thrombosis in two post-valve-in-valve (ViV) configurations, using five different numerical approaches. Realistic ViV configurations were calculated by modelling the deployments of the latest version of transcatheter aortic valve devices (Medtronic Evolut PRO, Edwards SAPIEN 3) in the surgical Sorin Mitroflow. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of blood flow followed the dry models. Lagrangian and Eulerian measures of near-wall stagnation were implemented by particle and concentration tracking, respectively, to estimate the thrombogenicity and to predict the risk locations. Most of the numerical approaches indicate a higher leaflet thrombosis risk in the Edwards SAPIEN 3 device because of its intra-annular implantation. The Eulerian approaches estimated high-risk locations in agreement with the wall sheer stress (WSS) separation points. On the other hand, the Lagrangian approaches predicted high-risk locations at the proximal regions of the leaflets matching the low WSS magnitude regions of both transcatheter aortic valve implantation models and reported clinical and experimental data. The proposed methods can help optimizing future designs of transcatheter aortic valves with minimal thrombotic risks.
- computational fluid dynamics
- leaflet thrombosis
- transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)
- valve-in-valve (ViV)