Equivfdeat networks of the operational amplifier with finite gain-bandwidth (a VCVS) are given. These equivalent networks consist of resistors, capacitors, and nullor-noror pairs. Equivalent networks are shown for the basic operational amplifier feedback connections (i.e., iaverting, noaiaverting, and differential). The networks are extended to include tbe other principal deviations from the ideal operational amplifier. The technique of applying the new models to the generation of improved active aetworks is then described.
- Active network synthesis