Nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infections in the palivizumab-prophylaxis era with implications regarding high-risk infants

Liat Ashkenazi-Hoffnung, Miri Dotan, Gilat Livni, Jacob Amir, Efraim Bilavsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background Although respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection continues to be a leading cause of infant hospitalization with a high transmission rate, recent data on nosocomial RSV infection are scarce. This study investigated the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of nosocomial RSV infection in the palivizumab-prophylaxis era. Methods The database of a tertiary pediatric medical center was searched for all hospitalized patients with RSV-positive respiratory disease in 2008-2010. Data were compared between patients with community-associated and nosocomial disease, and the qualification of the latter group for palivizumab was evaluated. Results Of the 873 children identified, 30 (3.4%) had a nosocomial infection. This group accounted for 0.06% of all admissions during the study period. The nosocomial infection group had higher rates of preterm birth and severe underlying disease than the community-associated RSV group and a longer mean hospital stay. The nosocomial infection group also had higher rates of intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. Although 73% had underlying conditions, most (80%) did not qualify for RSV immunoprophylaxis, including 7 children (23%) with immune deficiency. Conclusion Nosocomial RSV infection is a significant cause of morbidity among hospitalized infants, especially those with comorbidities and lengthy hospital stay, and is associated with a complicated clinical course. In addition to strict infection-control measures, extending palivizumab prophylaxis to additional selected high-risk populations should be considered.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)991-995
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Infection Control
Volume42
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2014

Keywords

  • Bronchiolitis
  • Health care-associated infections
  • Infants
  • Infection control
  • Palivizumab

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