Noninvasive assessment of the intracranial pressure in non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage

Michael Vaiman, Tal Sigal, Itzhak Kimiagar, Inessa Bekerman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The article describes the modified technique of measuring the diameters of the optic nerve sheath (ONSD) for assessment of the intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The CT scans of 443 patients were analyzed retrospectively. The ONSDs were measured at 3 mm behind the globe and at the point where the ophthalmic artery crosses the optic nerve. The ONSD/eyeball transverse diameter (ETD) ratio was calculated. The correlation analysis was performed with the Glasgow Coma Scale score, Hemispheric Stroke Scale score, Glasgow Outcome Score, and invasive ICP readings. ONSD was enlarged in 95% of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage or SAH. Pathological ONSDs were 6.6 ± 0.8 mm (cut-off value >5.5 mm; p < 0.05). ONSD/ETD ratio was 0.29 ± 0.05 against normative 0.19 ± 0.02 (p < 0.01) with no correlation with initial Glasgow Coma Scale score or Hemispheric Stroke Scale score. There was an inverse correlation between ONSD/ETD ratio and Glasgow Outcome Score (r = −0.7) and direct correlation with invasive ICP readings. This study provides further evidence that in patients with intracranial hemorrhage and SAH, the presence of ONSD greater than a threshold of 5.5 mm is significantly predictive of invasively measured elevated ICP. The prediction of raised ICP can be further refined by measuring ONSD at the point where the optic nerve and the ophthalmic artery cross, and by determining the ratio between the ONSD and ETD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)177-181
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Clinical Neuroscience
Volume34
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2016

Keywords

  • Adults
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan
  • Hemorrhagic stroke
  • Intracranial pressure
  • Non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)
  • Optic nerve sheath diameter

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