Noncontrast Computed Tomography Hypodensities Predict Poor Outcome in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients

Gregoire Boulouis*, Andrea Morotti, H. Bart Brouwers, Andreas Charidimou, Michael J. Jessel, Eitan Auriel, Octavio Pontes-Neto, Alison Ayres, Anastasia Vashkevich, Kristin M. Schwab, Jonathan Rosand, Anand Viswanathan, Mahmut E. Gurol, Steven M. Greenberg, Joshua N. Goldstein

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background and Purpose - Noncontrast computed tomographic (CT) hypodensities have been shown to be associated with hematoma expansion in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but their impact on functional outcome is yet to be determined. We evaluated whether baseline noncontrast CT hypodensities are associated with poor clinical outcome. Methods - We performed a retrospective review of a prospectively collected cohort of consecutive patients with primary ICH presenting to a single academic medical center between 1994 and 2016. The presence of CT hypodensities was assessed by 2 independent raters on the baseline CT. Unfavorable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin score >3 at 90 days. The associations between CT hypodensities and unfavorable outcome were investigated using uni- and multivariable logistic regression models. Results - During the study period, 1342 patients presented with ICH and 800 met restrictive inclusion criteria (baseline CT available for review, and 90-day outcome available). Three hundred and four (38%) patients showed hypodensities on CT, and 520 (65%) patients experienced unfavorable outcome. In univariate analysis, patients with unfavorable outcome were more likely to demonstrate hypodensities (48% versus 20%; P<0.0001). After adjustment for age, admission Glasgow coma scale, warfarin use, intraventricular hemorrhage, baseline ICH volume, and location, CT hypodensities were found to be independently associated with an increase in the odds of unfavorable outcome (odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval [1.10-2.65]; P=0.018). Conclusions - The presence of noncontract CT hypodensities at baseline independently predicts poor outcome and comes as a useful and widely available addition to our ability to predict ICH patients' clinical evolution.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2511-2516
Number of pages6
Issue number10
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • computed tomography
  • hematoma expansion
  • intracerebral hemorrhage
  • morbidity/mortality
  • prognosis


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