Nitrogen-rich salts of 5,5′-bistetrazole-1,1′-diolate: Syntheses, structures and properties

Ting Yang, Jian Guo Zhang, Zhi Bin Zhang, Michael Gozin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A series of new nitrogen-rich energetic salts containing 1H,1′H-[5,5′-bitetrazole]-1,1′-diol (BTO) anion and ethane-1,2-diaminium (1), 1-amino-1H-1,2,3-triazol-3-ium (2), 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium (3) and 4,5-diamino-4H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium (4) cations were synthesized by direct salt formation or by metathesis strategy. The structures of energetic salts 1-4 were comprehensively characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, IR and NMR spectroscopies and by X-ray crystallography. DSC and TGA methods were used to study thermal properties of these salts. Additionally, the non-isothermal kinetic parameters and thermodynamic parameters were calculated by utilizing the Kissinger's and Ozawa-Doyle's methods. The enthalpies of formation for all target compounds in this study were calculated, and their sensitivity to mechanical impact and friction was tested according to BAM guidelines. We found these new energetic salts exhibit good thermal stability and have typical decomposition temperatures above 230 °C, except for the salt 2. All our salts have highly-positive enthalpies of formation (311.1–473.6 kJ mol1) and are insensitive to impact and friction stimuli (>40 J, 120 N). With a high nitrogen-rich content, high enthalpy of formation, good thermostability and very low sensitivity to impact, some of these new salts may have a potential for application in the field of environmentally friendly insensitive energetic materials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)544-549
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Molecular Structure
StatePublished - 15 Mar 2018


  • 5,5′-Bitetrazole-1,1′-diolate
  • Crystal structures
  • Insensitive energetic materials


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