Nitrogen-Rich Salts based on 1,1’-Dihydroxy-5,5’-Azobistetrazole: aNew Family of Energetic Materials with Promising Properties

Zhi Bin Zhang, Jian Guo Zhang, Michael Gozin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A series of nitrogen-rich energetic heterocyclic 1,1’-dihydroxy-5,5’-azobistetrazole (AZO) salts are synthesized with ethylenediammonium (1), hydrazinium (2), semicarbazidium (3), guanidinium (4), 1-amino-1,2,3-triazolium (5), 4-amino-1,2,4-triazolium (6) and 5-amino-tetrazolium (7). The salts have characterized through elemental analysis, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectrometry. The crystal structures determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The thermal decomposition behaviors investigated by using the DSC and TG-DTG technologies. The enthalpies of formation are calculated through the combustion heat data measured through the oxygen bomb calorimetry. All the salts have acceptable thermal stability with the highest decomposition temperature of 301.8 °C, excellent high positive formation enthalpies ranging from 350.5 kJ mol−1 to 1500.3 kJ mol−1, and good insensitivity to outer stimuli compared to the traditional RDX. The promising detonation parameters of the salts yield detonation velocities (D) and pressures (P) are ranging from 7327 m s−1 to 8931 m s−1, and from 21.7 GPa to 32.7 GPa. Considering the advantage, it is possible to prepare these nitrogen-rich energetic salts as promising energetic materials. It's hoped that the present author's research contributed to the expansion and application of the chemistry of 1,1’-dihydroxy-5,5’-azobistetrazole.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3463-3473
Number of pages11
Issue number12
StatePublished - 29 Mar 2018


  • 1,1’-Dihydroxy-5,5’-azobistetrazole
  • Crystal Structure
  • Detonation Performance
  • Energetic salts
  • Thermal Analysis


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