Thirty-four children with familial dysautonomia (FD) underwent Nissen fundoplication and gastrostomy. The indications for operation were persistent cyclic vomiting that resulted in repeated aspiration pneumonia (94% of the patients), chronic dehydration (82%), failure to thrive (97%), and frequent hospitalizations (76%). There was no operative or early postoperative mortality. Long-term follow-up for up to 12 years was available. Eight patients died during this period from 7 months to 7.5 years postoperatively. In 5 patients (15% of the operated patients), the fundoplication ceased to function 16 months to 5 years postoperatively, which was attributed mainly to repeated severe dysautonomic crises with vigorous retching. Vomiting ceased in 85% of the symptomatic patients; pulmonary deterioration was halted, and the frequency of aspiration pneumonia was reduced in 68%; nutritional improvement was seen in 44%; the hydration status improved in 88%; and the frequency of hospital admissions decreased in 74%. These longterm findings resulted in a significant improvement in the quality of life for the majority of the patients. The absence of operative mortality and the low postoperative morbidity, together with the long-term beneficial results of this surgical procedure, should encourage early surgical intervention in selected FD patients.