In the last decade there has been a surge of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of Parkinson's disease along with a change of concepts about how the disease should be treated. The gold standard remains levodopa preparations, which have a rapid and dramatic symptomatic effect by replenishing the reduced dopamine levels in caudate and putamen nuclei. However, keeping in mind the complications that may emerge following long-term treatment, its initiation should possibly be delayed to the more advanced stages of the illness, especially in younger patients, in favour of dopamine agonists monotherapy. The adverse reactions that become prominent and disabling in late stages of the disease, i. e., dyskinesias, response fluctuations, and psychiatric side effects, can currently be managed by novel pharmacological as well as surgical strategies. Future therapies will focus on transplantation of dopaminergic embryonic tissue, gene therapy, and neuroprotective treatments.
- Parkinson's disease