In this article we have presented our experiences and those of others with various experimental and novel treatments in an experimental model of murine SLE, induced by immunisation with pathogenic anti-DNA antibody (fig. 4). Many of the treatments (summarised in the table) were highly effective in ameliorating clinical, serological, and histological manifestations of the disease. According to our results, it seems that hormonal treatments - such as testosterone metabolites, anti-oestrogens, or bromocriptine - as well as immunomodulation with IVIG or anti-CD4 antibodies, hold the most promising potential for application in lupus patients. We believe, therefore, that these types of treatment should receive high priority in human trials. It should be emphasised, however, that the timing of treatment may be critical, since several treatments were effective when used before or during the induction of the disease. This limitation may pose difficulty for human application, since the aetiology of SLE is still obscure and is probably multifactorial; therefore it is not yet possible to identify patients at risk of developing SLE. Nevertheless, those treatments which proved to be effective might be used early in the course of the disease in lupus patients and hence influence the outcome of the disease, or may even induce partial or complete remission.