Amyloidosis is a group of disorders characterized by a misfolded protein that deposits in organs and compromise their function. Clinician should have a high index of suspicion because in most cases, the clinical picture is non-specific. Typing of amyloid is of utmost importance and should be an integral part of accurately diagnosing a patient. AL amyloidosis is the most common systemic amyloidosis in the western world in which the misfolded proteins are immunoglobulin light chains secreted by clonal plasma cells. New data about prognostication of AL amyloidosis patients are accumulating. The treatment goal is to eradicate the amyloidogenic plasma cell clone, by using high dose melphalan and/or novel agents (proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, monoclonal antibodies against CD38). Early diagnosis is important for effectively treating the patient as late diagnosis hampers chances for organ recovery. ATTR amyloidosis is less recognized but is increasingly seen due to better recognition and improved diagnostic tools. New data about treatment options (patisiran, inotersen and tafamidis) have recently been published and are discussed.
- Light chains