A synthetic monomeric peptide triple receptor agonist, termed “Triagonist” that incorporates glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon (Gcg) actions, was previously developed to improve upon metabolic and glucose regulatory benefits of single and dual receptor agonists in rodent models of diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes. In the current study, the neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions of this Triagonist were probed in cellular and mouse models of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), a prevalent cause of neurodegeneration in both the young and elderly. Triagonist dose- and time-dependently elevated cyclic AMP levels in cultured human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, and induced neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions, mitigating oxidative stress and glutamate excitotoxicity. These actions were inhibited only by the co-administration of antagonists for all three receptor types, indicating the balanced co-involvement of GLP-1, GIP and Gcg receptors. To evaluate physiological relevance, a clinically translatable dose of Triagonist was administered subcutaneously, once daily for 7 days, to mice following a 30 g weight drop close head injury. Triagonist fully mitigated mTBI-induced visual and spatial memory deficits, evaluated at 7 and 30 days post injury. These results establish Triagonist as a novel neurotrophic/protective agent worthy of further evaluation as a TBI treatment strategy.
- Glucagon (Gcg)
- Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)
- Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)
- Incretin mimetic
- Mild traumatic brain injury