Purpose: Noonan syndrome (NS) is a rare neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by dysmorphic features, congenital heart defects, neurodevelopmental delay, and bleeding diathesis. Though rare, several neurosurgical manifestations have been associated with NS, such as Chiari malformation (CM-I), syringomyelia, brain tumors, moyamoya, and craniosynostosis. We describe our experience in treating children with NS and various neurosurgical conditions, and review the current literature on neurosurgical aspects of NS. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from the medical records of children with NS who were operated at a tertiary pediatric neurosurgery department, between 2014 and 2021. Inclusion criteria were clinical or genetic diagnosis of NS, age < 18 years at treatment, and need for a neurosurgical intervention of any kind. Results: Five cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two had tumors, one underwent surgical resection. Three had CM-I, syringomyelia, and hydrocephalus, of whom one also had craniosynostosis. Comorbidities included pulmonary stenosis in two patients and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in one. Three patients had bleeding diathesis, two of them with abnormal coagulation tests. Four patients were treated preoperatively with tranexamic acid, and two with Von Willebrand factor or platelets (1 each). One patient with a clinical bleeding predisposition developed hematomyelia following a syringe-subarachnoid shunt revision. Conclusions: NS is associated with a spectrum of central nervous system abnormalities, some of which with known etiology, while in others a pathophysiological mechanism has been suggested in the literature. When operating on a child with NS, a meticulous anesthetic, hematologic, and cardiac evaluation should be conducted. Neurosurgical interventions should then be planned accordingly.
- Brain tumor