Neurological Disorders

Tali Drori, Joab Chapman

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

Abstract

Myasthenia gravis (MG) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are both autoimmune diseases with neurological manifestations, yet with distinct immunopathology, treatment, and prognosis. MG is an archetypal B-cell-mediated autoimmune disease, antibodies targeting components of the acetylcholine receptor. The lack of nerve impulse transmission to muscle results in muscle weakness and fatigability. Mainstays of treatment include corticosteroids and immunosuppressant agents such as the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab. MS is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Pathophysiology includes activation of autoreactive T cells and their migration into the CNS, inducing an inflammatory cascade that results in demyelination of the brain and spinal cord. Autoreactive antibodies are likely to play a role. In recent years, a wide variety of treatment options have become available, targeting different components of the immune disease process. As treatment becomes more potent and aggressive, careful risk-benefit calculations and patient-specific decisions are required.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMosaic of Autoimmunity
Subtitle of host publicationThe Novel Factors of Autoimmune Diseases
PublisherElsevier
Pages541-548
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9780128143087
ISBN (Print)9780128143070
DOIs
StatePublished - 13 Feb 2019

Keywords

  • B lymphocytes
  • Immunosuppression
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • T lymphocytes

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