Neoadjuvant Osimertinib Followed by Sequential Definitive Radiation Therapy and/or Surgery in Stage III Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor–Mutant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: An Open-Label, Single-Arm, Phase 2 Study

Nir Peled*, Laila C. Roisman, Esther Levison, Julia Dudnik, Elena Chernomordikov, Norman Heching, Elizabeth Dudnik, Shoshana Keren-Rosenberg, Hovav Nechushtan, Ayman Salhab, Dov Hershkovitz, Shlomo Tsuriel, Victoria Hannes, Ofer Rotem, Irina Lazarev, Rachel Lichtenberg, Inbal S. Granot, Bilal Krayim, Walid Shalata, Daniel LevinYanay Krutman, Aaron M. Allen, Philip Blumenfeld, Konstantin Lavrenkov, Waleed Kian

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: The treatment for unresectable, locally advanced stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT) followed by consolidation durvalumab. This study aimed to evaluate the benefit of neoadjuvant osimertinib as an alternative therapy to this approach with the aim of reducing the radiation field. Methods and Materials: This investigation was a nonrandomized, open-label, single-arm, phase 2, prospective, proof-of-concept study. Eligible patients were classified as having treatment-naïve, nonoperable, stage III epidermal growth factor receptor–mutant NSCLC. Patients received 80 mg of oral osimertinib daily for 12 weeks before definitive radiation therapy (RT) and/or surgery. The response was assessed at weeks 6 and 12. For responders, sequential definitive RT and/or surgery were planned. Nonresponders were started on standard CRT. After RT ± surgery or CRT, patients were followed for 2 years without adjuvant therapy. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR), with September 20, 2022, set as the cut-off for data collection. Secondary endpoints were safety and the gross tumor volume (GTV), planned tumor volume (PTV), and the percentage of total lung volume minus GTV exceeding 20 Gy (V20%) before versus after osimertinib. Exploratory analyses included assessments of the presence of plasma circulating tumor-free DNA (ctDNA) before osimertinib treatment, at weeks 6 and 12, at the end of RT, and 6 weeks post-RT. Results: Twenty-four patients were included (19 women; median age, 73 years; range, 51-82 years). Nineteen of 24 had never smoked, 20 of 24 had adenocarcinoma, 16 of 24 had exon 19 deletions, and 8 of 24 had exon 21 mutations. Participants had stage IIIA (10), IIIB (9), or IIIC (5) disease. Three patients were excluded from the analysis (1 dropped out and 2 were still undergoing osimertinib treatment at the cut-off date). The ORR to induction osimertinib was 95.2% (17 partial response, 3 complete response, and 1 progressive disease). After induction osimertinib, 13 of 20 patients were definitively radiated, 3 of 20 underwent surgery, and 5 of 20 were excluded. Four patients were restaged as stage IV (contralateral ground-glass opacities responded to osimertinib), and 1 patient withdrew informed consent. Three patients underwent surgery, one of whom was treated with RT. Two patients achieved pT1aN0, and one achieved pathologic complete response. The median GTV, PTV, and V20% before osimertinib treatment were 47.4 ± 76.9 cm3 (13.5-234.9), 227.0 ± 258.8 cm3 (77.8-929.2), and 27.1 ± 16.4% (6.2-60.3), respectively. The values after osimertinib treatment were 27.5 ± 42.3 cm3 (2.99-137.7; –48 ± 20%; P = .02), 181.9 ±198.4 cm3 (54-718.1; –31 ± 20%; P = .01), and 21.8 ± 11.7% (9.1-44.15; –24 ± 40%; P = .04), respectively. PTV/GTV/V20% reduction was associated with tumor size and central location. The median follow-up time was 28.71 months (range, 0.4-45.1 months), and median disease-free survival was not reached (mean, 30.59; standard error, 3.94; 95% confidence interval, 22.86-38.31). ctDNA was detected in 5 patients; 4 of 5 were positive for ctDNA at baseline and became negative during osimertinib induction but were again positive after osimertinib treatment was terminated. Interestingly, 3 patients who were ctDNA negative at baseline became weakly positive after RT and then were negative at follow-up. No significant adverse events were reported during the osimertinib or radiation phases. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant osimertinib therapy is feasible in patients with stage III lung cancer NSCLC, followed by definitive radiation and/or surgery, with an ORR of 95.2% and an excellent safety profile. Osimertinib induction for 12 weeks before definitive radiation (chemo-free) significantly reduced the radiation field by nearly 50% with a linear association with tumor size. Further studies are needed to test this chemo-free approach for long-term outcomes before practices are changed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)105-114
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Volume117
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2023
Externally publishedYes

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