Negative space charge effects in photon-enhanced thermionic emission solar converters

G. Segev, D. Weisman, Y. Rosenwaks, A. Kribus*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


In thermionic energy converters, electrons in the gap between electrodes form a negative space charge and inhibit the emission of additional electrons, causing a significant reduction in conversion efficiency. However, in Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) solar energy converters, electrons that are reflected by the electric field in the gap return to the cathode with energy above the conduction band minimum. These electrons first occupy the conduction band from which they can be reemitted. This form of electron recycling makes PETE converters less susceptible to negative space charge loss. While the negative space charge effect was studied extensively in thermionic converters, modeling its effect in PETE converters does not account for important issues such as this form of electron recycling, nor the cathode thermal energy balance. Here, we investigate the space charge effect in PETE solar converters accounting for electron recycling, with full coupling of the cathode and gap models, and addressing conservation of both electric and thermal energy. The analysis shows that the negative space charge loss is lower than previously reported, allowing somewhat larger gaps compared to previous predictions. For a converter with a specific gap, there is an optimal solar flux concentration. The optimal solar flux concentration, the cathode temperature, and the efficiency all increase with smaller gaps. For example, for a gap of 3μm the maximum efficiency is 38% and the optimal flux concentration is 628, while for a gap of 5μm the maximum efficiency is 31% and optimal flux concentration is 163.

Original languageEnglish
Article number013908
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number1
StatePublished - 6 Jul 2015


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