Today, it has become apparent that innovative treatment methods, including those involving simultaneous diagnosis and therapy, are particularly in demand in modern cancer medicine. The development of nanomedicine offers new ways of increasing the therapeutic index and minimizing side effects. The development of photoactivatable dyes that are effectively absorbed in the first transparency window of biological tissues (700–900 nm) and are capable of fluorescence and heat generation has led to the emergence of phototheranostics, an approach that combines the bioimaging of deep tumors and metastases and their photothermal treatment. The creation of near-infrared (NIR) light-activated agents for sensitive fluorescence bioimaging and phototherapy is a priority in phototheranostics, because the excitation of drugs and/or diagnostic substances in the near-infrared region exhibits advantages such as deep penetration into tissues and a weak baseline level of autofluorescence. In this review, we focus on NIR-excited dyes and discuss prospects for their application in photothermal therapy and the diagnosis of cancer. Particular attention is focused on the consideration of new multifunctional nanoplatforms for phototheranostics which allow one to achieve a synergistic effect in combinatorial photothermal, photodynamic, and/or chemotherapy, with simultaneous fluorescence, acoustic, and/or magnetic resonance imaging.
|Russian Foundation for Basic Research
- near infrared
- photothermal therapy