Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are pathogens that may lead to a spectrum of clinical syndromes. We aimed to identify predictors and outcomes of ESBL bacteremia upon hospital admission (UHA) in a nationwide prospective study. Thus, a multicenter prospective study was conducted in 10 Israeli hospitals. Adult patients with bacteremia due to Enterobacteriaceae diagnosed within 72 h of hospitalization were included. Patients with ESBL producers (cases) were compared to those with non-ESBL producers (controls), and a 1:1 ratio was attempted in each center. A case-control study to identify predictors and a cohort study to identify outcomes were conducted. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used for analyses. Overall, 447 patients with bacteremia due to Enterobacteriaceae were recruited: 205 cases and 242 controls. Independent predictors of ESBL were increased age, multiple comorbid conditions, poor functional status, recent contact with health care settings, invasive procedures, and prior receipt of antimicrobial therapy. In addition, patients presenting with septic shock and/or multiorgan failure were more likely to have ESBL infections. Patients with ESBL producers suffered more frequently from a delay in appropriate antimicrobial therapy (odds ratio [OR], 4.7; P, <0.001) and had a higher mortality rate (OR, 3.5; P, <0.001). After controlling for confounding variables, both ESBL production (OR, 2.3; P, 9.1) and a delay in adequate therapy (OR, 0.05; P, 0.001) were significant predictors for mortality and other adverse outcomes. We conclude that among patients with bacteremia due to Enterobacteriaceae UHA, those with ESBL producers tend to be older and chronically ill and to have a delay in effective therapy and severe adverse outcomes. Efforts should be directed to improving the detection of patients with ESBL bacteremia UHA and to providing immediate appropriate therapy.