National differences in gender-science stereotypes predict national sex differences in science and math achievement

Brian A. Nosek, Frederick L. Smyth, N. Sriram, Nicole M. Lindner, Thierry Devos, Alfonso Ayala, Yoav Bar-Anan, Robin Bergh, Huajian Cai, Karen Gonsalkorale, Selin Kesebir, Norbert Maliszewski, Félix Neto, Eero Olli, Jaihyun Park, Konrad Schnabel, Kimihiro Shiomura, Bogdan Tudor Tulbure, Reinout W. Wiers, Mónika SomogyiNazar Akrami, Bo Ekehammar, Michelangelo Vianello, Mahzarin R. Banaji, Anthony G. Greenwald

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

About 70% of more than half a million Implicit Association Tests completed by citizens of 34 countries revealed expected implicit stereotypes associating science with males more than with females. We discovered that nation-level implicit stereotypes predicted nation-level sex differences in 8th-grade science and mathematics achievement. Self-reported stereotypes did not provide additional predictive validity of the achievement gap. We suggest that implicit stereotypes and sex differences in science participation and performance are mutually reinforcing, contributing to the persistent gender gap in science engagement.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10593-10597
Number of pages5
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume106
Issue number26
DOIs
StatePublished - 30 Jun 2009
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Culture
  • Implicit Association Test
  • Implicit social cognition
  • Social psychology

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