Nanotechnology is an important strategy for combinational innovative chemo-immunotherapies against colorectal cancer

Ana I. Matos, Barbara Carreira, Carina Peres, Liane I.F. Moura, João Conniot, Thibaut Fourniols, Anna Scomparin, Águeda Martínez-Barriocanal, Diego Arango, João P. Conde, Véronique Préat, Ronit Satchi-Fainaro, Helena F. Florindo*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the five most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide, constituting 6% of all cancers and the third leading cause of cancer death. CRC is the third and second most frequent cancer in men and women worldwide, accounting for 14% and 13% of all cancer incidence rates, respectively. CRC incidence is decreasing in older populations, but it has been significantly rising worldwide in adolescents and adults younger than 50 years old. Significant advances in the screening methods and surgical procedures have been underlying the reduction of the CRC incidence rate in older populations. However, there is an urgent demand for the development of alternative effective therapeutic options to overcome advanced metastatic CRC, while preventing disease recurrence. This review addresses the immune and CRC biology, summarizing the recent advances on the immune and/or therapeutic regimens currently in clinical use. We will focus on the emerging role of nanotechnology in the development of combinational therapies targeting and thereby regulating the function of the major players in CRC progression and immune evasion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)108-138
Number of pages31
JournalJournal of Controlled Release
StatePublished - 10 Aug 2019


  • Colorectal cancer
  • Combinational schemes
  • Immunotherapy
  • Nanotechnology
  • Tumor immune microenvironment


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