Mutation D30N is not preferentially selected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C in the development of resistance to nelfinavir

Zehava Grossman, Ellen E. Paxinos, Diana Averbuch, Shlomo Maayan, Neil T. Parkin, Dan Engelhard, Margalit Lorber, Valery Istomin, Yael Shaked, Ella Mendelson, Daniela Ram, Chris J. Petropoulos, Jonathan M. Schapiro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Differences in baseline polymorphisms between subtypes may result in development of diverse mutational pathways during antiretroviral treatment. We compared drug resistance in patients with human immunodeficiency virus subtype C (referred to herein as "subtype-C-infected patients") versus subtype-B-infected patients following protease inhibitor (PI) therapy. Genotype, phenotype, and replication capacity (Phenosense; Virologic) were determined. We evaluated 159 subtype-C- and 65 subtype-B-infected patients failing first PI treatment. Following nelfinavir treatment, the unique nelfinavir mutation D30N was substantially less frequent in C (7%) than in B (23%; P = 0.03) while L90M was similar (P < 0.5). Significant differences were found in the rates of M36I (98 and 36%), L63P (35 and 59%), A71V (3 and 32%), V77I (0 and 36%), and I93L (91 and 32%) (0.0601 < P < 0.05) in C and B, respectively. Other mutations were L10I/V, K20R, M46I, V82A/I, I84V, N88D, and N88S. Subtype C samples with mutation D30N showed a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50) change in susceptibility to nelfinavir only. Other mutations increased IC50 correlates to all PIs. Following accumulation of mutations, replication capacity of the C virus was reduced from 43% ± 22% to 22% ± 15% (P = 0.04). We confirmed the selective nature of the D30N mutation in C, and the broader cross-resistance of other common protease inhibitor mutations. The rates at which these mutational pathways develop differ in C and subtype-B-infected patients failing therapy, possibly due to the differential impact of baseline polymorphisms. Because mutation D30N is not preferentially selected in nelfinavir-treated subtype-C-infected patients, as it is in those infected with subtype B, the consideration of using this drug initially to preserve future protease inhibitor options is less relevant for subtype-C-infected patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2159-2165
Number of pages7
JournalAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2004
Externally publishedYes


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