Objective: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated in some studies with nonspecific musculoskeletal pain and, more specifically, with statin-induced myalgia, which was ameliorated by high-dose vitamin D supplements. Our objective was to explore the association between vitamin D status and statin-induced myalgia and elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK). Design: Retrospective cohort study, based on the electronic database of a health maintenance organization. Patients Six thousand eight hundred and eight patients (71.5% women) to whom statins were dispensed during 2008 and who had ≥1 CK and 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) levels measured during statin exposure. Of these, 376 patients (5.5%) had switched from a first-line statin to atorvastatin because of muscle pain (n = 220) or other reasons (n = 156). Measurements: In the entire cohort, we compared serum CK levels among serum 25OHD quartiles. In addition, we compared CK and 25OHD levels among patients with myalgia, other switchers and nonswitchers. Results: The median 25OHD level in the entire cohort was 21.8 ng/ml [interquartile range (IQR), 16.3-27.4]. CK levels were marginally lower in patients in the lowest 25OHD quartile [median CK (IQR) in 25OHD quartiles 1-4, 87 (61-130), 90 (65-131), 91 (65-132) and 91 (67-131) IU/ml, respectively; P = 0.007]. 25OHD levels in statin switchers were similar to those in nonswitchers; moreover, there were no differences in 25OHD among switchers with muscle pain and other switchers. Conclusion: Our findings do not support an association between low 25OHD levels and statin-induced myalgia or CK elevation.