Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Dynamometry: A Critical Review

Zeevi Dvir*, Steffen Müller

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Angular isokinetic dynamometry (AID) is widely regarded as the gold standard for dynamic muscle performance testing. Based on the rotational movement of its actuator, AID targets "single-joint"(knee, shoulder, hip, etc.) configurations namely measurement of muscle potential while it moves the lever arm-limb assembly ostensibly around a single fixed axis. On the other hand, the application of multiple-joint isokinetic dynamometry (MID) is relatively narrow, both in research and in practice. This situation is due, possibly, to the fact that these dynamometers are generally more limited in scope namely to testing/conditioning of combined hip, knee, ankle motion (leg press), combined shoulder, elbow motion, and lifting motion patterns, despite the fact that all 3 are associated with higher functionality. However, with the emerging importance of MID, this critical review takes a fresh look at its various aspects including the terminology and classification of multiple-joint isokinetic dynamometers; the problem of scaling namely the need to adjust the range of motion and linear velocities to subjective anthropometric measures; specific technical and methodological issues that underlie the valid application of these dynamometers; available reference values; and the reproducibility of MID-based test findings. Analysis of these topics indicates that MID may validly and effectively be applied for the assessment and conditioning of specific muscle action patterns. However, there is a clear need for standardization of tests and for conditioning protocols alongside research into the use of this method in various clinical cohorts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)587-601
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2020


  • isokinetics
  • linear
  • reference values
  • reproducibility


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