Background: This study evaluated meal bolus insulin delivery strategies and associated postprandial glucose control while using an artificial pancreas (AP) system.
Subjects and Methods: This study was a multicenter trial in 53 patients, 12-65 years of age, with type 1 diabetes for at least 1 year and use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion for at least 6 months. Four different insulin bolus strategies were assessed: standard bolus delivered with meal (n=51), standard bolus delivered 15min prior to meal (n=40), over-bolus of 30% delivered with meal (n=40), and bolus purposely omitted (n=46). Meal carbohydrate (CHO) intake was 1g of CHO/kg of body weight up to a maximum of 100g for the first three strategies or up to a maximum of 50g for strategy 4.
Conclusions: The AP handled the four bolus situations safely, but at the expense of having elevated postprandial glucose levels in most subjects. This was most likely secondary to suboptimal performance of the algorithm.
Results: Only three of 177 meals (two with over-bolus and one with standard bolus 15min prior to meal) had postprandial blood glucose values of <60mg/dL. Postprandial hyperglycemia (blood glucose level >180mg/dL) was prolonged for all four bolus strategies but was shorter for the over-bolus (41% of the 4-h period) than the two standard bolus strategies (73% for each). Mean postprandial blood glucose level was 15.9mg/dL higher for the standard bolus with meal compared with the prebolus (baseline-adjusted, P=0.07 for treatment effect over the 4-h period).