Multi-valued semantics: Why and how

Arnon Avron*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


According to Suszko's Thesis, any multi-valued semantics for a logical system can be replaced by an equivalent bivalent one. Moreover: bivalent semantics for families of logics can frequently be developed in a modular way. On the other hand bivalent semantics usually lacks the crucial property of analycity, a property which is guaranteed for the semantics of multi-valued matrices. We show that one can get both modularity and analycity by using the semantic framework of multi-valued non-deterministic matrices. We further show that for using this framework in a constructive way it is best to view "truth-values" as information carriers, or "information-values".

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)163-182
Number of pages20
JournalStudia Logica
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jul 2009


FundersFunder number
Russian Science Foundation809-06


    • Analycity
    • Many-valued logics
    • Modularity
    • Multi-valued semantics
    • Non-deterministic matrices
    • Suszko's thesis


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