Mucormycosis in lung transplant recipients: A systematic review of the literature and a case series

Ori Wand, Avraham Unterman, Shimon Izhakian, Ludmila Fridel, Mordechai R. Kramer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Mucormycosis is a rare infection in lung transplant recipients (LTR). Our objective was to better define the clinical presentation and optimal management of this frequently lethal infection. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify all published cases of mucormycosis in LTR using PubMed/MEDLINE. These cases were analyzed together with a new case series from our clinic. Results: Literature search yielded 44 articles matching the inclusion criteria, describing 121 cases. Six additional cases were identified from our clinic. Data regarding infection site and outcome were available for a total of 53 patients. The lungs were the most common site of infection (62%), followed by rhinocerebral and disseminated disease. Most cases (78%) developed in the first post-transplant year, with over 40% of them in the first month. Additional risk factors for mucormycosis were identified in over half of the patients. Surgical debridement was uncommon in pulmonary infection (9%). Posaconazole therapy was used in 35% of cases, mostly in combination with amphotericin B. Overall mortality was 32% but varied according to site of infection. Conclusion: Mucormycosis in LTRs tends to be an early post-surgical infection, associated with additional risk factors and intensified immunosuppressive states, and most often affects the lungs, where surgical debridement is rarely feasible. Posaconazole as first-line therapy should be further explored.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere13774
JournalClinical Transplantation
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2020


  • amphotericin B
  • lung transplantation
  • mucormycosis
  • pan-fungal PCR
  • posaconazole
  • zygomycosis


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