Mortalin/GRP75 promotes release of membrane vesicles from immune attacked cells and protection from complement-mediated lysis

David Pilzer, Zvi Fishelson*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The membrane attack complex (MAC) of the complement system is causing membrane damage and cell death. For protection, cells have adopted several resistance mechanisms, including removal of the membrane-inserted MAC by vesiculation. To identify proteins involved in MAC vesiculation, extracellular proteins released from K562 cells in response to treatment with sub-lytic complement were separated by acrylamide gel electrophoresis and protein bands were extracted, digested into peptides and the peptides were analyzed by mass spectrometry. A 75-kDa protein that was abundant in the supernatant of complement-treated cells was identified as mortalin/GRP75. Analysis by western blotting demonstrated that as early as 5 min after exposure to sub-lytic doses of complement, mortalin was released from K562 cells. Mortalin was released after complete activation of the complement system and formation of C5b-8, and even more so when C5b-9 was formed. Other pore formers, such as streptolysin O and melittin, did not induce release of mortalin. As shown, mortalin can bind to complement C8 and C9 and is shed in vesicles containing C9 and complement MACs. Anti-mortalin antibodies reduced mortalin release from complement-treated cells and elevated the extent of cell death by complement. Inhibitors of protein kinase C and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase also prevented mortalin release from complement-activated cells. These results suggest that mortalin/GRP75 promotes the shedding of membrane vesicles loaded with complement MAC and protects cells from complement-mediated lysis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1239-1248
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Immunology
Volume17
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2005

Keywords

  • C9
  • Complement
  • Membrane attack complex
  • Membrane vesiculation
  • Mortain/GRP75

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