Morbidity of depth and subdural electrodes: Children and adolescents versus young adults

Uri Kramer, James J. Riviello, Lionel Carmant, Peter Mcl Black, Joseph Madsen, Sandra L. Helmers, Mohamad Mikati, Gregory L. Holmes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Invasive EEG monitoring is used in the presurgical evaluation of children with intractable epilepsy. The morbidity of intracranial electrode monitoring was retrospectively evaluated in 56 children and adults; 16 patients had depth electrodes (DE), 30 had subdural electrodes (SDE), and 10 had combined DE and SDE. The patients were divided into two groups by age: 29 were younger than 18 and 27 were older than 18 years. Each group was subdivided by the electrodes used: either DE, subdural grids, subdural strips, or a combination of both. Infection and hemorrhage were noted and morbidity was then scored by postoperative fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, and lethargy. A significant complication occurred in one patient, an 11-year-old girl with a previous craniotomy, who developed a subdural hematoma following the insertion of SDE. The hematoma and grid were removed, and an epidural grid was eventually placed. There were no significant differences in morbidity between the groups. We conclude that invasive electrode monitoring is well-tolerated in both children and adults.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7-10
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Epilepsy
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1994
Externally publishedYes


  • Children
  • Invasive monitoring
  • Morbidity
  • Risks
  • Safety


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