Modulation of the Thrombin Pathway Restores LTP in a Pilocarpine Mice Model of Status Epilepticus

Efrat Shavit-Stein, Shani Berkowitz, Tal Davidy, Uri Fennig, Shani Guly Gofrit, Amir Dori, Nicola Maggio*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Status epilepticus (SE) leads to memory impairment following a seizure, attributed to long-term potentiation (LTP) reduction. Thrombin, a coagulation factor that activates protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is involved in cognitive impairment following traumatic brain injury by reducing hippocampal LTP and in seizures as seen in a SE pilocarpine-induced mice model. Thrombin pathway inhibition prevents this cognitive impairment. We evaluated the effect of thrombin pathway inhibition in the pilocarpine-induced SE mice model, on LTP, hippocampal, and serum markers for inflammation, the PAR1 pathway, and neuronal cell damage. Methods: SE was induced by injecting C57BL/6J mice with pilocarpine. Before pilocarpine injection, mice were injected with either the specific thrombin inhibitor α-NAPAP [Nα-(2-naphthalene-sulfonylglycyl)-4-amidino-DL-phenylalaninepiperidide], the PAR1 antagonist SCH79797, or vehicle-only solution. Recordings of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP) were conducted from hippocampal slices 24 h following pilocarpine injection. Hippocampal real-time PCR for the quantification of the PAR1, prothrombin, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) mRNA expression levels was conducted. Serum levels of neurofilament light chain (NfL) and TNF-α were measured by a single molecule array assay. Results: The EPSP was reduced in the pilocarpine-induced SE mice (p < 0.001). This reduction was prevented by both NAPAP and SCH79797 treatments (p < 0.001 for both treatments). Hippocampal expression of TNF-α was elevated in the pilocarpine-induced SE group compared to the control (p < 0.01), however, serum levels of TNF-α were not changed. NfL levels were elevated in the pilocarpine-induced SE group (p = 0.04) but not in the treated groups. Conclusions: Pilocarpine-induced SE reduces LTP, in a thrombin PAR1-related mechanism. Elevation of serum NfL supports neuronal damage accompanying this functional abnormality which may be prevented by PAR1 pathway modulation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number900925
JournalFrontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Volume16
DOIs
StatePublished - 24 May 2022

Funding

FundersFunder number
Chaim Sheba Medical Center
Talpiot Medical Leadership Program

    Keywords

    • PAR1
    • hippocampus
    • pilocarpine
    • seizures
    • status epilepticus
    • thrombin

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