Modulation and Signal-Processing Tradeoffs for Reverse-GPS Wildlife Localization Systems

Andrey Leshchenko, Sivan Toledo

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


Reverse-GPS wildlife localization systems are emerging as a key technology for regional high-throughput wildlife tracking. Two such systems have been designed, implemented, and deployed (in six sites on three continents). Both of the existing systems suffer from limitations due to the modulation that is used by transmitters, which are attached to wild animals, and due to the detection and estimation algorithms that they use to detect transmissions and estimate their arrival times. This paper investigates key tradeoffs associated with three different modulation schemes that wildlife tags can plausibly use. The factors that we investigate include the ability to detect weak signals from distant tags, the ability to accurately estimate the time-of-arrival at a given SNR, and the computational cost of these detection and estimation algorithms. Our key contributions are (1) evidence that BPSK modulation is superior in essentially all relevant metrics, except perhaps chip availability, to FSK and OOK; (2) evidence that OOK is a second-best choice and its main drawback is poor performance under interference from other tags; (3) algorithms to inexpensively search the frequency-delay space at moderate and high SNRs. We also report on implementation efforts designed to integrate robust processing of BPSK tags into a wildlife tracking system.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2018 European Navigation Conference, ENC 2018
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages12
ISBN (Print)9781538649626
StatePublished - 10 Aug 2018
Event26th European Navigation Conference, ENC 2018 - Gothenburg, Sweden
Duration: 14 May 201817 May 2018

Publication series

Name2018 European Navigation Conference, ENC 2018


Conference26th European Navigation Conference, ENC 2018


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