Modification of counterfactual communication protocols that eliminates weak particle traces

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The possibility to communicate between spatially separated regions, without even a single photon passing between the two parties, is an amazing quantum phenomenon. The possibility of transmitting one value of a bit in such a way, the interaction-free measurement, has been known for quarter of a century. The protocols of full communication, including transmitting unknown quantum states, were proposed only a few years ago, but it was shown that in all these protocols the particle was leaving a weak trace in the transmission channel, the trace being larger than the trace left by a single particle passing through the channel. This made the claim of counterfactuality of these protocols at best controversial. However, a simple modification of these recent protocols eliminates the trace in the transmission channel, making all these protocols counterfactual.

Original languageEnglish
Article number010103
JournalPhysical Review A
Issue number1
StatePublished - 18 Jan 2019


FundersFunder number
German-Israeli Foundation for Scientific Research and DevelopmentI-1275-303.14
Israel Science Foundation1311/14


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