Modelling dental implant extraction by pullout and torque procedures

D. Rittel*, A. Dorogoy, K. Shemtov-Yona

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Dental implants extraction, achieved either by applying torque or pullout force, is used to estimate the bone–implant interfacial strength. A detailed description of the mechanical and physical aspects of the extraction process in the literature is still missing. This paper presents 3D nonlinear dynamic finite element simulations of a commercial implant extraction process from the mandible bone. Emphasis is put on the typical load-displacement and torque-angle relationships for various types of cortical and trabecular bone strengths. The simulations also study of the influence of the osseointegration level on those relationships. This is done by simulating implant extraction right after insertion when interfacial frictional contact exists between the implant and bone, and long after insertion, assuming that the implant is fully bonded to the bone. The model does not include a separate representation and model of the interfacial layer for which available data is limited. The obtained relationships show that the higher the strength of the trabecular bone the higher the peak extraction force, while for application of torque, it is the cortical bone which might dictate the peak torque value. Information on the relative strength contrast of the cortical and trabecular components, as well as the progressive nature of the damage evolution, can be revealed from the obtained relations. It is shown that full osseointegration might multiply the peak and average load values by a factor 3–12 although the calculated work of extraction varies only by a factor of 1.5. From a quantitative point of view, it is suggested that, as an alternative to reporting peak load or torque values, an average value derived from the extraction work be used to better characterize the bone–implant interfacial strength.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)416-427
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Dental implant
  • Extraction
  • Load
  • Numerical modelling
  • Torque


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