Minimal residual disease (MRD) analysis in the non-MRD-based ALL IC-BFM 2002 protocol for childhood ALL: Is it possible to avoid MRD testing?

E. Fronkova, E. Mejstrikova, S. Avigad, K. W. Chik, L. Castillo, S. Manor, L. Reznickova, T. Valova, K. Zdrahalova, O. Hrusak, Y. Jabali, M. Schrappe, V. Conter, S. Izraeli, C. K. Li, B. Stark, J. Stary, J. Trka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The ALL IC-BFM 2002 protocol was created as an alternative to the MRD-based AIEOP-BFM ALL 2000 study, to integrate early response criteria into risk-group stratification in countries not performing routine PCR-based MRD testing. ALL IC stratification comprises the response to prednisone, bone marrow (BM) morphology at days 15 and 33, age, WBC and BCR/ABL or MLL/AF4 presence. Here, we compared this stratification to the MRD-based criteria using MRD evaluation in 163 patients from four ALL IC member countries at days 8, 15 and 33 and week 12. MRD negativity at day 33 was associated with an age of 1-5 years, WBC < 20000 μl-1, non-T immunophenotype, good prednisone response and non-M3 morphology at day 15. There were no significant associations with gender or hyperdiploidy in the study group, or with TEL/AML1 fusion within BCP-ALL. Patients with M1/2 BM at day 8 tended to be MRD negative at week 12. Patients stratified into the standard-risk group had a better response than intermediate-risk group patients. However, 34% of them were MRD positive at day 33 and/or week 12. Our findings revealed that morphology-based ALL IC risk-group stratification allows the identification of most MRD high-risk patients, but fails to discriminate the MRD low-risk group assigned to therapy reduction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)989-997
Number of pages9
JournalLeukemia
Volume22
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2008

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