BACKGROUND: We tested the primary hypothesis that final intraoperative esophageal temperature is associated with increased odds of a composite of in-hospital all-cause mortality and myocardial injury within 7 days after noncardiac surgery. Secondary exposures were time-weighted average intraoperative temperature and area <37°C threshold. METHODS: Myocardial injury was defined by postoperative fourth-generation troponin T ≥0.03 ng/mL apparently due to cardiac ischemia. Data were extracted for inpatients who had noncardiac surgery with general anesthesia at the Cleveland Clinic between 2012 and 2015. All had esophageal temperature monitoring and routine postoperative troponin monitoring. We estimated the confounder-adjusted association between final intraoperative esophageal temperature and the collapsed composite with multivariable logistic regression. We similarly estimated associations with time-weighted average intraoperative temperature and area <37°C. RESULTS: Two thousand two hundred ten patients were included. Nearly all final esophageal temperatures were 36°C-37°C. Ninety-seven patients (4.4%) had myocardial injury, and 7 (0.3%) died before discharge. Final intraoperative core temperature was not associated with the collapsed composite: odds ratio, 0.91 (95% confdence interval, 0.68-1.24) per 1°C decrease. Similarly, neither of the secondary exposures was associated with the composite outcome. CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe an association between mild perioperative hypothermia and mortality or myocardial injury in adults having noncardiac surgery. However, the range of final intraoperative temperatures was small and largely restricted to the normothermic range (36°C-37°C). Trials are needed to further assess the effect of temperature on myocardial injury.