Middle ear pathology in ancient and modern populations: Incudal osteoma

Baruch Arensburg*, Victor Belkin, Michael Wolf

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Conclusions. Osteomas of the incus were found in surprisingly high numbers in ancient and modern populations. The coexistence of osteoma formation and unique vascularization on the medial surface of the incus alludes to a relationship between the two findings. Objective. Osteomas involving the middle ear ossicles are rare. The aim of this study was to compare the incudal pathology of ancient and recent periods using the recent literature. Material and methods. Pathologies encountered in 1170 human incudes belonging to different populations from ancient and recent periods were studied. Most of the ossicles were found in the middle ear of dry skulls or during dissection. The observations were done with a binocular microscope and a Nikon Profile Projector. Results. A total of 47 incudes (4.01%) presented with a variety of pathologies, osteomas being found in 19 cases (1.62%). The osteomas were noted only on the medial surface of the incus. Other findings, including prominent erosions, multiple nutrient foramina and pitting, were also found on the medial side of the incus. The incidence of osteoma was found to be more common in ancient populations (1.88%) and most prevalent among Bedouins (4.55%).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1164-1167
Number of pages4
JournalActa Oto-Laryngologica
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2005


  • Dry bone
  • Incus
  • Middle ear
  • Osteoma
  • Skull
  • Vascular supply


Dive into the research topics of 'Middle ear pathology in ancient and modern populations: Incudal osteoma'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this