Mid-turonian anoxic event in Israel - a multidisciplinary approach

Avraham Honigstein*, Shulamit Lipson-Benitah, Brian Conway, Akiva Flexer, Amnon Rosenfeld

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Bituminous marls of the Daliyya Formation with up to 2% total organic carbon content, from the Galame quarry, Mount Carmel, northern Israel were studied. A great part of the organic matter is composed of exceptionally abundant dinoflagellate cysts. These sapropelic sediments were deposited in oxygen-depleted, quiet waters in a shelf basin. The massive encystment and good preservation of the cysts, chitinous test linings of foraminifers and the occurrence of pyrite also indicate reducing environments. Primary production was stimulated by upwelling of nutrient-rich oceanic waters, influx of fresh-water and derivates from the Mount Carmel volcanism. A middle Turonian age was determined on the basis of planktonic foraminifers (Helvetoglobotruncana helvetica zone) and ostracodes (Cythereis rawashensis kenaanensis zone). The anoxic event in the studied area post-dated the main phase of the global Late Cenomanian-Early Turonian anoxic event OAE-2, due to a pre-existing structural high in this region.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)103-112
Number of pages10
JournalPalaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology
Issue numberC
StatePublished - 1989


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