Micromagnetometry of two-dimensional ferromagnets

M. Kim*, P. Kumaravadivel, J. Birkbeck, W. Kuang, S. G. Xu, D. G. Hopkinson, J. Knolle, P. A. McClarty, A. I. Berdyugin, M. Ben Shalom, R. V. Gorbachev, S. J. Haigh, S. Liu, J. H. Edgar, K. S. Novoselov, I. V. Grigorieva, A. K. Geim

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The study of atomically thin ferromagnetic crystals has led to the discovery of unusual magnetic behaviour and provided insight into the magnetic properties of bulk materials. However, the experimental techniques that have been used to explore ferromagnetism in such materials cannot probe the magnetic field directly. Here, we show that ballistic Hall micromagnetometry can be used to measure the magnetization of individual two-dimensional ferromagnets. Our devices are made by van der Waals assembly in such a way that the investigated ferromagnetic crystal is placed on top of a multi-terminal Hall bar made from encapsulated graphene. We use the micromagnetometry technique to study atomically thin chromium tribromide (CrBr3). We find that the material remains ferromagnetic down to monolayer thickness and exhibits strong out-of-plane anisotropy. We also find that the magnetic response of CrBr3 varies little with the number of layers and its temperature dependence cannot be described by the simple Ising model of two-dimensional ferromagnetism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)457-463
Number of pages7
JournalNature Electronics
Issue number10
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2019
Externally publishedYes


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