Background: Controversy exists surrounding the optimal treatment for inducing remission in active Crohn's disease. Aim: To review and update evidence on the effectiveness of enteral nutrition (EN) in treating active Crohn's disease in children. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library (up to February 2007) were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) relevant to Crohn's disease and EN in children. Results: We included 11 RCTs (n = 394). Seven RCTs (n = 204) compared EN with corticosteroid therapy. On the basis of pooled results of four RCTs (n = 144), we found no significant difference in the remission rates between groups (relative risk, RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.7-1.4, random effect model). Four RCTs (n = 190) compared two EN regimens. One of the four RCTs (n = 50) revealed a significant increase in the percentage of patients achieving remission in the total EN group compared with the partial EN group (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1-7.4). Because of lack of data, formal pooling of results was not possible for many outcomes (e.g., time until remission, duration of remission, growth data). Conclusions: Limited data suggest similar efficacy for EN and corticosteroids. As the number of patients needed to provide a definite answer is too large, future studies should focus on detailed outcome measurements including growth and quality of life.