This retrospective study describes the effects of long-term treatment with melatonin in 33 adolescents (age range, 10-18 years) with delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). Patients were treated with oral melatonin, 3 to 5 mg/day for an average period of 6 months. During the treatment, sleep onset was advanced and sleep duration was longer. Treatment was also associated with a decrease in the proportion of patients reporting school difficulties. No adverse effects of melatonin were noted. This study indicates that long-term treatment with melatonin can be beneficial for adolescents with DSPS in terms of sleep-wake schedule and school performance.