The proton elastic form factors GEp(Q2) and GMp(Q2) have been extracted for Q2=1.75 to 8.83 (GeV/c)2 via a Rosenbluth separation to ep elastic cross section measurements in the angular range 13°≤θ≤90°. The Q2 range covered more than doubles that of the existing data. For Q2<4 (GeV/c)2, where the data overlap with previous measurements, the total uncertainties have been reduced to < 14% in GEp and < 1.5% in GMp. Results for GEp(Q2) are consistent with the dipole fit GD(Q2)=(1+Q2/0.71)-2, while those for GMp(Q2)/μpGD(Q2) decrease smoothly from 1.05 to 0.92. Deviations from form factor scaling are observed up to 20%. The ratio Q2F2/F1 is observed to approach a constant value for Q2>3 (GeV/c)2. Comparisons are made to vector meson dominance, dimensional scaling, QCD sum rule, diquark, and constituent quark models, none of which fully characterize all the new data.