This article reports measurements of the pT-differential inclusive jet cross section in pp collisions at s=5.02TeV and the pT-differential inclusive jet yield in Pb-Pb 0-10% central collisions at sNN=5.02TeV. Jets were reconstructed at midrapidity with the ALICE tracking detectors and electromagnetic calorimeter using the anti-kT algorithm. For pp collisions, we report jet cross sections for jet resolution parameters R=0.1-0.6 over the range 20<pT,jet<140 GeV/c, as well as the jet cross-section ratios of different R and comparisons to two next-to-leading-order (NLO)-based theoretical predictions. For Pb-Pb collisions, we report the R=0.2 and R=0.4 jet spectra for 40<pT,jet<140 GeV/c and 60<pT,jet<140 GeV/c, respectively. The scaled ratio of jet yields observed in Pb-Pb to pp collisions, RAA, is constructed, and exhibits strong jet quenching and a clear pT dependence for R=0.2. No significant R dependence of the jet RAA is observed within the uncertainties of the measurement. These results are compared to several theoretical predictions.