Measurement of the Anisotropic Dynamic Elastic Constants of Additive Manufactured and Wrought Ti6Al4V Alloys

Ofer Tevet, David Svetlizky, David Harel, Zahava Barkay, Dolev Geva, Noam Eliaz*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Additively manufactured (AM) materials and hot rolled materials are typically orthotropic, and exhibit anisotropic elastic properties. This paper elucidates the anisotropic elastic properties (Young’s modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson’s ratio) of Ti6Al4V alloy in four different conditions: three AM (by selective laser melting, SLM, electron beam melting, EBM, and directed energy de-position, DED, processes) and one wrought alloy (for comparison). A specially designed polygon sample allowed measurement of 12 sound wave velocities (SWVs), employing the dynamic pulse-echo ultrasonic technique. In conjunction with the measured density values, these SWVs enabled deriving of the tensor of elastic constants (Cij ) and the three-dimensional (3D) Young’s moduli maps. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and micro-computed tomography (µCT) were employed to characterize the grain size and orientation as well as porosity and other defects which could explain the difference in the measured elastic constants of the four materials. All three types of AM materials showed only minor anisotropy. The wrought (hot rolled) alloy exhibited the highest density, virtually pore-free µCT images, and the highest ultrasonic anisotropy and polarity behavior. EBSD analysis revealed that a thin β-phase layer that formed along the elongated grain boundaries caused the ultrasonic polarity behavior. The finding that the elastic properties depend on the manufacturing process and on the angle relative to either the rolling direction or the AM build direction should be taken into account in the design of products. The data reported herein is valuable for materials selection and finite element analyses in mechanical design. The pulse-echo measurement procedure employed in this study may be further adapted and used for quality control of AM materials and parts.

Original languageEnglish
Article number638
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2022


  • Additive manufacturing (AM)
  • Directed energy deposition (DED)
  • Dynamic elastic constants
  • Electron beam melting (EBM)
  • Poisson’s ratio
  • Pulse-echo ultrasonic technique
  • Selective laser melting (SLM)
  • Shear modulus
  • Ti6Al4V
  • Wrought alloy
  • Young’s modulus


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